The warfarin administered prevented vitamins K1 and K2 from helping in the coactivation of VKDP, to induce calcification of their aortas. In rats given warfarin and then given vitamin K2, there was a significant decrease in the calcification of their aortas, indicating a reversal of calcification. Within the same group of rats, the rate of apoptosis of VSMCs decreased when vitamin K2 was administered six weeks after a warfarin diet. Gas6 is another VKDP that regulates the apoptosis of VSMC; when both this protein and MGP are undercarboxylated, there is an increase in the rate of apoptosis. This study reveals the role of vitamin K2 not only as a cofactor in the activation of VKDP, but also as a reversal of calcium deposition in the blood vessels.

This has not been previously reported, but triglycerides were known to be involved in the intestinal transport of vitamin K2 to target cells. As understanding of vitamin K2’s role in calcium metabolism and bone mineralization increased, further research was done to compare its effects with related compounds. A review of the literature in Tokyo by Iwamoto et al. examined the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with vitamin K2, vitamin D, or both combined. He concluded that the synergistic effect of vitamin D and K2 use was present only in young patients or mild cases of osteoporosis. Vascular calcification is the result of SMCs behaving like osteoblasts, allowing the synthesis of hydroxyapatite crystals, similar to the process of bone remodeling.

Compared to vitamin D and vitamin C, vitamin K2 is the black sheep of the vitamin family. Department of Agriculture didn’t even examine how much vitamin K2 was in our food. But it turns out that this little-known nutrient can have significant positive effects on your health, which can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer.

One month after administration, serum levels of carboxylated osteocalcin increased; however, minimal changes in BMD were observed. This contradicts the results found in Shiomi et al., where bmd increased in the first year. It is important to note that Ozuru et al. only studied a limited sample of 34 postmenopausal Japanese women, showing a possible selection bias that would reduce the reliability of the studies. This may be because the parathyroid glands become hyperplastic and overactive or from ectopic sources, but the resulting effect in all cases is hypercalcemia.

And while the condition is known as the “silent killer,” vitamin K2’s important role in heart health should no longer be silenced. Although sources of vitamin K1 are plant-based, foods containing vitamin K2 come primarily from animals, namely egg yolks, dairy products (e.g., butter and certain cheeses), chicken, eel, and organ meats. Vitamin K2 is also found in certain fermented natural vitamin k2 foods, with sauerkraut, kefir and nattō being the best known. Kappa Bioscience is a manufacturer of premium vitamin K2VITAL® MK-7 and microencapsulated K2VITAL® DELTA for stability in mineral formulations. Vitamin K2 supports bone health by activating proteins that absorb calcium in bones and preventing excess calcium from being deposited in blood vessels and arteries.