The next two Brezhnev successors, transitional figures with deep roots in their tradition, did not last long. Yuri Andropov was 68 years old and Konstantin Chernenko 72 when they took power; both died in less than two years. In an Soviet collectibles effort to avoid a third short-lived leader, the Soviets turned to the next generation in 1985 and selected Mikhail Gorbachev. The glasnost policy gave public access to information after decades of strong government censorship.

However, in a private meeting without Kosygin, the Politburo unanimously supported a Soviet intervention. The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 to 1991 includes the period from Leonid Brezhnev’s death and burial to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Years of the Soviet Union’s military accumulation at the expense of internal development stagnated economic growth. Failed attempts at reform, a stagnating economy and the success of the United States against the Soviet Union’s troops in the war in Afghanistan led to a general sense of discontent, especially in the Baltic republics and Eastern Europe. Stalin suppressed all political opposition to his government within the Communist Party and held a commando economy. As a result, the country experienced a period of rapid industrialization and forced collectivization, leading to significant economic growth, but also led to a man-made famine in 1932-1933 and expanded the Gulag labor camp system originally established in 1918.

The industrial decline and rising inflation radicalized the workers and cost the Provisional Government the necessary support from the professional middle class. Apparently the government spoke for the country, but in reality only represented the middle class; The Soviets represented the workers and peasants. Moderate socialists, Mensheviks and socialist revolutionaries dominated the Soviets of Petrograd and Moscow after February, but the radical Bolsheviks began to win local elections and in September they had a majority in the Soviet of Petrograd. The February 1917 revolution was spontaneous, leaderless and fueled by deep resentment over the economic and social conditions that prevailed in imperial Russia under Tsar Nicholas. The country, absorbed by the First World War, found the tensions of waging a modern war with a pre-modern political and economic system unbearable. The Tsar had good intentions, but was short of war as a war leader and could not handle the burdens of head of state.

Several arms control and trade agreements have been signed and ratified during this period. Kosygin started the economic reform of the Soviet Union in 1973 to improve the powers and functions of regional planners by entering into partnerships. The reform has never been fully implemented; members of the Soviet leadership even complained that the reform had not even started at the time of the 1979 reform. The economic reform of the Soviet Union in 1979 began to improve the Soviet economy that stagnated at the time. The aim of the reform was to increase the powers of the central ministries by centralizing the Soviet economy more.

Per capita consumption increased by an estimated 70% under Brezhnev, although three-quarters of this growth occurred before 1973 and only a quarter in the second half of his term of office. Most of the increase in consumer production in the early Brezhnev era can be attributed to the Kosygin reform, according to an analysis of the performance of the reform by Moscow State University. After Khrushchev’s controversial assertion that communism could be reached “in twenty years”, the new Soviet leadership responded by promoting the concept of developed socialism. Brezhnev explained the beginning of the era of socialism developed in 1971 at the 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Developed socialism was described as socialism that “reached developed conditions”, the result of “perfecting” the socialist society that had arisen. Developed socialism became the ideological cornerstone of the Brezhnev regime and helped explain the situation in the Soviet Union.

Great Purification A campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union from 1936 to 1938. It involved widespread cleansing of the Communist Party and government officials, oppression of farmers and leadership of the Red Army, and widespread police surveillance, suspicion of “spoilers”, “prison sentence” and arbitrary executions. First five-year plan A list of economic objectives drawn up by Secretary-General Joseph Stalin and based on his one-country socialism policy, implemented between 1928 and 1932.